It’s true that unless you’re a science fiend, home brewer or brewing aficionado, it can be confusing to wrap your head around the different beer varieties — especially since they’re all made of water, malted barley, yeast, and hops. For the most part, beer can be broken down into two major categories.
Most beers are either ales or lagers. Ales, which originated in England, are made by brewing a top-fermenting yeast (a fungus that grows at the top of the fermentation vessel) at room temperature. They have lots of hops and malt, which give them a more characteristically bitter taste and darker color. Varieties of ale include:
- India Pale Ale: A very hoppy (read: bitter) brew.
- Hefeweizen: An unfiltered wheat beer.
- Irish red ale: The roasted barley content creates a signature red color and tea-like flavor.
- Porter: A London-style dark ale made with roasted malts.
- Stout: The darkest and heaviest of beers, packed with toasted flavors like those of chocolate, coffee, oatmeal, or cream.
Unlike ales, lagers, which originated in central Europe, are created when bottom-fermenting yeast is cold-brewed at low temperatures (between 45°F and 57°F) for long periods of time. They tend to be lighter in color, and mild- and fruit-flavored. Varieties of lager include:
- Pilsner: A light yellow lager with a bitter, hoppy flavor.
- American light beer: A watered-down version of pilsner that’s lower in calories (and in taste).
- Bock: A strong lager that’s brewed for extra months and has a robust malt characteristic.
- Märzen: A copper-colored, high-alcohol beer with a toasty flavor, full body, and dry finish.